Pencak silat or silat is a martial art which originated from Southeast Asia. This martial art is widely known in Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, and Singapore, the southern Philippines and southern Thailand in accordance with the spread of ethnic Malay archipelago. Thanks to the role of the trainers from Indonesia, Vietnam now also has a formidable fighter-fighter.
Parent organizations in the Indonesian Pencak Silat Pencak Silat is the Indonesian Institute (IPSI). Organizations representing Pencak Silat federations in various countries is the Guild Pencak Silat Between Nations (Persilat), which was formed by Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia and Brunei Darussalam.
Silat is expected to spread across the archipelago since the 7th century AD, but its origin has not been established. The origin of martial arts in this country may have evolved from the skills of indigenous tribes of Indonesia in hunting and fighting with machetes, shields, and spears, such as in the tradition of Nias tribe, which until the 20th century relatively untouched by outside influences.
Silat tradition passed down through oral and spread from mouth to mouth, are taught from master to student, so that a written record of the origin of martial arts is hard to find. The history of martial arts legend is told through a variety from one region to another. Legend Minangkabau, silat (Minangkabau language: Silek) created by Datuk Suri `s from Pariangan, Tanah Datar at the foot of Mount Marapi in the 11th century. Then Silek taken and developed by the nomads Minang throughout Southeast Asia. Similarly the folklore about the origins of martial arts Cimande flow, which tells of a woman who modeled motion fight between a tiger and a monkey. Each region generally has a martial character (warrior) is proud of, for example Si Pitung, Hang Tuah, and Gajah Mada.
Researcher Donald F. silat Draeger argues that the evidence of the martial arts can be seen from the various weapons found artifacts from the classical period (Hindu-Buddhist) and on the carved reliefs that contains the attitudes of the horses silat at Prambanan temple and Borobudur. In his book, Draeger wrote that martial arts weapons and martial arts are inseparable, not only in fitness, but also the spiritual connection that is closely related to Indonesian culture. Meanwhile, Sheikh Shamsuddin (2005) argues that there is the influence of martial arts from China and India in the martial arts. This is because since the beginning of the Malay culture has got the influence of culture brought by traders and immigrants from India, China, and other foreign countries. The development of martial arts began historically recorded when the distribution is heavily influenced by the propagator of religion in the 14th century in the archipelago. At that time the martial arts are taught together with religious instruction at the mosque or the seminary. Silat become part of spiritual practice. Silat then evolved from martial arts and folk dance, martial arts education part of the country to deal with foreign invaders.
Silat is now recognized as an ethnic Malay culture in the broad sense, namely the residents of coastal areas of Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula, and various other ethnic groups who use the lingua franca of the Malay language in various areas in Java, Bali, Kalimantan, Sulawesi and islands -the island of others who also developed the martial arts. Several national martial arts organizations include the Association of Pencak Silat Indonesia (IPSI) in Indonesia, the Guild Silat Kebangsaan Malaysia (PESAKA) in Malaysia, Singapore Silat Guild (EXACTLY) in Singapore, and the Guild Silat Brunei Darussalam (PERSIB) in Brunei. Has grown to also dozens of martial arts universities in the United States and Europe. Silat has now formally entered the sport in international matches, particularly competed in the SEA Games.
Terms of Pencak Silat
Pencak silat is a system which consists of the attitude (position) and movement (movement). When a fighter moves when fighting, attitudes and movements change with the change in the opposite positions on an ongoing basis. Soon after discovering weaknesses the opponent's defense, then the fighters will try to beat your opponent with a quick attack.
Characteristic of the Silat is the use of steps. This step is important in martial arts game is good and right. There are several steps that recognizable patterns, such as step three and step four.
Pencak Silat has a lot of kinds of defensive and attacking techniques. Traditionally the term of this technique can be likened to the fruit. Ordinary fighter uses hands, elbows, arms, legs, knees and feet in attack. Common techniques including kicks, punches, block, sweep, locking, throwing, holding, broke the bone joints, and others.
Fighters practice moves. Kick is a series of basic movements for upper and lower body, which is used as a guide to mastering the use of advanced techniques of martial arts (fruit), the time taken to exercise singly or in pairs. The use of steps, or small movements of the body, teaches the use of setting foot. When combined, that's barely Association, or the flow throughout the body.
There are 4 main aspects of martial arts, namely:
- Mental and Spiritual Aspects: Pencak silat builds and develops one's personality and noble character. The warrior and the most ancient martial arts teachers often have to pass through stages of meditation, asceticism, or other mystical aspect to achieve the highest level of scientific.
- Aspects of Art and Culture: Culture and the game of "art" of martial arts is one aspect that is very important. Pencak term generally describes the dance art form of martial arts, with music and traditional dress.
- Aspects of Self-Defense: self-confidence and perseverance are very important in martial arts master in the martial art. The term martial arts, tend to emphasize the aspect of technical ability martial martial art.
- Aspects of Sports: This means that the physical aspect of martial arts is important. Fighters tried to adjust the mind with body work. The competition is part of this aspect. Aspect of sports games and demonstrations include other forms of stance, both for single, double or team.
Forms of martial arts and padepokannya (where berlatihnya) different from each other, in accordance with aspects emphasized. Many who find their home stream of observations on wild animal fights. Silat-silat tiger and monkey are examples of such flows. There is also an opinion that the aspect of martial arts and sports, both physical and breathing, is the beginning of the development of martial arts. Aspects of sport and martial aspect is what has made martial arts became popular in Europe.
However, many argue that the fundamentals of martial arts terhilangkan, or facilitated, while martial arts to join the world of sports. Therefore, most martial arts practitioners continue to focus on traditional or spiritual forms of martial arts, and not follow the membership and rules adopted by Persilat, as a martial arts setting organizations worldwide.
In summary, students silat or fighters are divided into several stages or levels of proficiency, namely:
- Beginners, taught all the basic steps such as horses, kicking techniques, punches, blocks, dodgery, catch, dings, body work, as well as a series of basic steps of education and standard Jutsu IPSI
- Medium, ditahap this, fighters are more focused on the application all the basic movements, understanding, variation, and here will begin to appear interests and talents fighters, and will be distributed to each branch, for example, Sports & Culture.
- Coach, the result of a mature capability based on experience in the beginner stage, and middle would make the fighters stepped into the next stage, where they will be given techniques - techniques martial arts college, where this technique is only given to people who are trustworthy, and capable of technically and morally , because the martial arts technique is usually a very effective combat technique in disabling the opponent / very deadly.
- Swordsman, is a fighter who has been recognized by the elders of college, they will inherit the sciences in high-level secret.
Pencak Silat has developed rapidly during the 20th century and has become a competition sport under the control and regulation Persilat (Partnership Pencak Silat Between Nations, or The International Pencak Silat Federation). Pencak Silat is being promoted by Persilat in several countries across 5 continents, with the aim of making martial arts became an Olympic sport. Persilat promoting Pencak Silat as an international sporting competition. Only members who are recognized Persilat allowed to participate in international competitions.
Now, some European national Pencak Silat federations together with Persilat has established European Pencak Silat Federation. In 1986 the first Pencak Silat World Championship outside of Asia, taking place in Vienna, Austria.
In 2002 Pencak Silat was introduced as part of program performance at the Asian Games in Busan, South Korea for the first time. World Championship latest was in 2002 took place in Penang, Malaysia in December 2002.
Apart from efforts to make Pencak Silat Persilat as sporting events, there's still plenty of traditional old schools of martial arts that developed under the name Silek and Silat in the various parts of the world. It is estimated that there are hundreds of streams (styles) and thousands of college.