Durian is a tropical plant that originated from Southeast Asia, as well as the name of the fruit can be eaten. The name is taken from the skin of fruit typical of the hard and sharp grooved so as to resemble thorns. His most popular title "king of all fruits" (King of Fruit), and durian is a fruit that controversial. Although many who love it, others fed up with the smell.
Indeed, plants with a durian is not a single species but a group of plants of the genus Durio. However, what is meant by durian (without any additive) is likely to Durio zibethinus. The types of other durian can be eaten and are sometimes found in the host market in Southeast Asia include lai (D. kutejensis), kerantungan (D. oxleyanus), durian or kekura turtle (D. graveolens), and lahung (D . dulcis). Henceforth, the description below refers to the D. zibethinus.
Annual tree, evergreen (leaf shedding is independent of the season) but there is a certain time to grow new leaves (or peronaan flushing period) that occurs after a period of fruitful completion. Grow tall to reach a height of 25-50 m depending on the species, often have banir durian tree (the roots of the board). Pepagan (bark), reddish brown, irregular flakes. Leafy canopy and tenuous.
Elliptic-shaped leaves up to lanceolate, 10-15 (-17) cm × 3 to 4.5 (-12.5) cm located alternate; stemmed; stem taper or ramp blunt and pointy toes; the upper side light green, the underside covered with silvery scales or feathers golden star.
Flowers (also men) came directly from the trunk (cauliflorous) or old branches at the base (proximal), grouped in the essay contains 30-10 florets skein-shaped or flat panicles. Flower buds rounded, about 2 cm in diameter, long-stemmed. Petals form a tube along lk. 3 cm, leaves additional petals split to 2-3 round egg-shaped lobes. Crown shape spatula, about 2 × length of petals, has 5 strands, whitish. Stamens many, is divided into 5 files; head putiknya forming hump, with a hairy stem. Flowers appear from dormant buds, blooms in the afternoon and lasted until a few days. By day flower closes. Interest is spreading the scent that comes from the nectar glands at the base to attract bats as primary pollinators. Study in Malaysia in the 1970s showed that pollinators are bats Eonycteris spelaea durian. Further research in 1996 showed that of other animals, like birds and bees honey Nectariniidae participate in the pollination of durian three other relatives.
Durian fruit-type capsule-shaped, ovate to oval, with a length of up to 25 cm and a diameter of up to 20 cm. His skin is thick, sharply angled surface ("thorny", because it was called "durian", although this is not a thorn in the botanical sense), yellowish green, brown, to grayish.
Fruit develops after fertilization and requires 4-6 months for cooking. During ripening there is competition antarbuah in one group, so only one or a few pieces that will reach maturity, and the rest fall. The fruit will fall itself when ripe. In general the weight of durian fruit may reach 1.5 to 5 pounds, so the durian plantation into a dangerous area during the durian season. If the fall on someone's head, durian fruit can cause severe injury or even death.
Each fruit has five rooms (laymen call it "room"), which indicates the number of leaf pieces owned. Each room occupied by a few seeds, usually three points or more, tapering to 4 cm in length, and brownish pink shiny. Seeds encased by arilus (coated seeds, commonly referred to as "flesh fruit" durian) white to bright yellow with varying thickness, but the thickness arilus superior cultivars can reach 3 cm. Seeds with the coated seeds in a trade called Pongge. Durian breeding is directed to produce a small seed with a thick-coated seeds, because this is the part coated seeds are eaten. Some varieties produce fruit with seeds that are not developed yet by thick-coated seeds (called "breadfruit").
Terms growing and fertilizing
Rainfall is preferably at least 1500 mm, spread evenly throughout the year. However, dry periods of 1-2 months will stimulate better flowering. Holiday season durian fruit usually occurs after years of prolonged drought. Harvest season between fruit production may occur with the mediocre.
This plant needs deep soil, light and well drained. Optimal pH is 6 to 6.5. Acid soils, such as red-yellow podzolic latosol or require liming Agara plants grow well. Young durian also require protection of nature, for trees or branches that are full of fruit does not break the strong wind. Ground water level can not be less than 150cm because the ground water that is too low result in less sweet fruit.
Fertilization is done by making a small trench around the tree and then sprinkled with chemical fertilizers. Manure is given at time of planting seedlings. Fertilization with the same levels of NPK is given soon after the fruiting season, while fertilization with higher levels of P given after flushing is completed to prepare for flowering.
Commercial planting of durian in the plantation done with a spacing of 10 m × 10 m to 12 m × 12 m, depending on the size of plant / kultivarnya. If the plants are still small, intercropping can be done. Weed control also needs to be done.
Maintenance includes fertilizing, pruning (formation and rejuvenation), irrigation (if needed), and control of pests and diseases. A good durian canopy is rounded conical, with main branches horizontal to the side.
Durian trees started to bear fruit after 4-5 years, but in cultivation can be accelerated when using the results of vegetatively propagated planting material. The techniques used are transplants (rarely done), lactation (rarely done), grafting sanding (inarching), cleft grafting (cleft grafting), or grafting (budding). This last technique is now the most widely used. Some breeders are now also applying micro grafting (micrografting). This technique is done on rootstock are young so that speed up the waiting period. Noted that the durian vegetatively multiplied capable flowering after 2-3 years.
Pests that attack them are durian fruit borer caterpillar (gala-gala), caterpillar flowers, and durian psyllid (sucking fluid young leaves).
The main diseases of durian is the root and stem rot Pythium complectens, dead seeds (also by the same pathogen), blendok disease / cancer Phytophthora palmivora, and fungi that attack upas stems / branches.
Durian especially those maintained for its fruit, which is generally eaten (arilus or coated seeds) in a fresh condition. Coated seeds are generally sweet and very nutritious because they contain lots of carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and minerals.
On the feast of durian season, this fruit can be produced in abundance, especially in centers of production in the region. Traditionally, fruit flesh is usually exaggerated preserved by cooking with sugar into dodol durian (commonly called Lempok), or memfermentasikannya become tempoyak. Furthermore, tempoyak that sour taste is usually the subject of dishes such as sambal tempoyak, or to a mixture of cooking fish.
Durian is often processed into a mixture of traditional cakes, such as gelamai or porridge. Sometimes, durian sticky rice mixed in a dish of rice (sticky rice) along with coconut milk. In today's world, durian (or smell) are commonly mixed in candy, ice cream, milk, and various other types of beverages.
Seeds can be eaten as a snack after boiled or baked, or mixed in durian compote. Raw durian seeds are poisonous and can not be eaten because it contains fatty acids siklopropena (cyclopropene). Durian seeds contain about 27% amylose. Leaf bud (shoot), crown of flowers, and young fruit can be cooked as a vegetable.
Some parts of the plant is sometimes used as an ingredient of traditional medicine. Roots used as a drug fever. The leaves, mixed with jeringau (Acorus Calamus), used to cure cantengan (infection of the nails). Men to treat skin rash on the skin (scab) and constipation (constipation). Rind is also used to be burned and the ashes used in potions to launch abort menstrual and womb. Ash ash and water immersion is also used as a mixture of traditional dyes.
Some communities in Java using durian skin that has been eaten as a repellent (Repellent) mosquitoes by putting them in a corner.
Gubalnya wood paneling and white colored reddish. Lightweight, but not very durable and easily attacked by termites. Usually used as furniture, packing crates, and light construction materials under the roof, provided no contact with the ground.
Each 100 g of coated seeds contain 67 g of water, 28.3 g carbohydrate, 2.5 g fat, 2.5 g protein, 1.4 g fiber; and has a value of 520 kJ of energy. Durian also contains vitamin B1, vitamin B2, and vitamin C, and potassium, calcium and phosphorus.
According to many stories that develop in the community (urban legend), Durian is considered as a hot meal, and after eating durian is usually the body will sweat. How commonly used to deal with is by pouring fresh water on the skin of fruit that has been empty, and drunk. In addition, the durian season usually coincides with mangosteen season, the fruit is considered to cool the body. Thus, both the fruit and then eat together.
Scientifically, the above claims was never proved. Chances are as a solid nutritional durian, people who eat durian eat most often and eventually increases blood pressure. This is a natural reaction if too much to eat any food.
Choosing the right fruit is very important if the seller sells the fruit as is, without may be loaded. Now the sellers are generally willing to open the fruit to prove its contents. In this way, the expertise in choosing becomes less important.
People can choose a durian with ease in the garden. Fruit from the same tree generally have similar characteristics. Typically left to ripe fruit in the garden and fell from a tree ("duren fall").
Selection of fruit outside the garden is more complicated. Here are some of the selection guidelines that can be used:
- Fresh fruit can be determined from the stem. If the fruit has fallen from a tree, the stem will begin to dry up. Dishonest sellers who will try to wrap or paint the stalk to deter buyers recognize the freshness. Sellers are less intelligent may even durian would discard stems.
- Most enthusiasts like durian fruit, dry and mature. An easy way to find out whether the contents without opening the durian fruit is dry is to shake the fruit and feel a small vibration. Fill in the damp durian fruit attached to the skin. Fill a dry durian tends to separate from the fruit wall. People must necessarily be cautious so as not to be scratched by thorns while performing this durian fruit.
- Durian may be attacked by the destructive caterpillars lay eggs inside the fruit which develop into larvae. When buying fruit durian fruit buyers should avoid the potholes on kulitnyanya because this is often a sign of "worm" in the fruit.
People who are just learning to buy durian durian which has been recommended to buy ready to be opened because it divides the durian somewhat difficult. Usually we can easily find sellers who provide service to divide durian. If the buyer has agreed to buy, the seller usually will cut durian as a ministry. They are willing to do so, although they do not move the contents into another parcel. But the durian fruit that has been split needs to be eaten because it was likely to "sweat". When the contents begin to produce water durian, durian fruit will lose their taste and not much use.
People can learn to divide durian carefully with the usual equipment there. Inspect the outer skin of the fruit to find a "line" (seam) along the surface where durian thorns arranged in a straight line. Generally there are up to 5 lines along the surface of the durian fruit.
Stalk section must be reversed and durian durian uric line will meet at one point at the end of the fruit. Slowly stick sharp objects (knives) at this point, then scratched along the "line" that has been seen previously. Gloves or a thick piece of cloth can be used to hold the durian fruit with one hand while the other one to perform this task. Beware risk thorn durian.
When the skin of the durian fruit has been opened into two parts, content in ready to eat. The remaining sections can be split by using the palm of the hand by way of tearing a little at the end of the durian skin along the center of the midpoint of the previous.